Counter-Forensics: Attacking Image Forensics

TitleCounter-Forensics: Attacking Image Forensics
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsBoehme, R., & Kirchner M.
Other Numbers3369

This chapter discusses counter-forensics, the art and science of impedingor misleading forensic analyses of digital images. Research on counter-forensics ismotivated by the need to assess and improve the reliability of forensic methods insituations where intelligent adversaries make efforts to induce a certain outcome offorensic analyses. Counter-forensics is first defined in a formal decision-theoreticframework. This framework is then interpreted and extended to encompass the requirementsto forensic analyses in practice, including a discussion of the notion ofauthenticity in the presence of legitimate processing, and the role of image modelswith regard to the epistemic underpinning of the forensic decision problem. A terminologyis developed that distinguishes security from robustness properties, integratedfrom post-processing attacks, and targeted from universal attacks. This terminologyis directly applied in a self-contained technical survey of counter-forensics againstimage forensics, notably techniques that suppress traces of image processing andtechniques that synthesize traces of authenticity, including examples and brief evaluations.A discussion of relations to other domains of multimedia security and anoverview of open research questions concludes the chapter.


This work was partially funded by the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD) through a postdoctoral fellowship.

Bibliographic Notes

In Digital Image Forensics, H. T. Sencar and N. D. Memon, eds., pp. 327-366, Springer

Abbreviated Authors

R. Boehme and M. Kirchner

ICSI Research Group


ICSI Publication Type

Book chapter or section